Review On Prospect Of Genetically Modified Diet In Overcoming Celiac Disease
Preeti Kayastha, Radhika Gharti Magar, Yamuna Adhikari, Prabesh Koirala
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The advancements on biotechnological techniques and improvement in genetic makeup of plant cell structure gave rise to the genetic modification of plants in the 1980s. Genetically Modified plants have been a key to combat various diseases, Celiac Disease (CD) being one of them. Gluten, the structural protein of wheat, is identified as the prime cause of the autoimmune CD. Gluten-Free Diet (GFD) has been the only appropriate solution so far. In this review, we aim to shed some light on the numerous health implications caused by CD along with the merits and demerits of gluten-free diet. The inclination towards GFD is increasing even among non-celiac individuals. But GFD is considered inferior to products containing gluten though its claim to lessening gluten-related disorders and nutritional imbalance is pretty strong. The strict long term restriction to gluten is challenging to achieve, hence leading patients to seek for alternatives, possibly some manipulations in a genetic level that would create downregulation of the genes causing CD, while maintaining the nutrition, quality, and taste of the food. Approaches such as RNAi, EMS, Gene editing, Peptidase treatment, Gamma irradiation, and Deletion lines have shown convincing results in silencing the immunogenic epitope of gluten. This paper focuses on discussing various approaches on solving the issue of CD along with the prospects and challenges on obtaining a genetically modified diet against the disease. It highlights various biotechnological advances in obtaining such genetically modified diet as a promising guide to overcome Celiac Disease.